Incremental energy costs: The cost of producing and/or transporting the next available unit of electrical energy above a previously determined base cost.
Idle cropland: Land in which no crops were planted; acreage diverted from crops to soil-conserving uses (if not eligible for and used as cropland pasture) under federal farm programs is included in this component.
Improvement Cutting : An intermediate, partial, harvest that removes less desirable trees of any species to improve the form, quality, health or wildlife potential of the remaining trees. Usually occurs after the sapling stage and before final harvest.
Incineration: is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are described as "thermal treatment". Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash, flue gas, and heat. The ash is mostly formed by the inorganic constituents of the waste, and may take the form of solid lumps or particulates carried by the flue gas. The flue gases must be cleaned of gaseous and particulate pollutants before they are dispersed into the atmosphere. In some cases, the heat generated by incineration can be used to generate electric power. Incineration with energy recovery is one of several waste-to-energy (WtE) technologies such as gasification, Plasma arc gasification, pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion.
Incinerator: Any device used to burn solid or liquid residues or wastes as a method of disposal. In some incinerators, provisions are made for recovering the heat produced.
Inclined grate: A type of furnace in which fuel enters at the top part of a grate in a continuous ribbon, passes over the upper drying section where moisture is removed, and descends into the lower burning section. Ash is removed at the lower part of the grate.
Independent power producer: A power production facility that is not part of a regulated utility.
Indirect Impacts: The inter-industry effects of input-output analysis; the impacts above and beyond the direct effects when applied to Type I multipliers.
Indirect-injection engine: An older model of diesel engine in which fuel is injected into a prechamber, partly combusted, and then sent to the fuel-injection chamber.
Indirect liquefaction: Conversion of biomass to a liquid fuel through a synthesis gas intermediate step.
Induced draft fan: A fan mounted at the discharge of the boiler, before the stack, to keep furnace pressure at the correct level and assure proper movement of flue gases up the chimney. Also called the ID fan.
Industrial wood: All commercial roundwood products, except fuelwood.
Injection auger: The final fuel auger that moves the solid fuel into the combustion zone. In particular, an auger that forces fuel through an aperture onto the grates.
Inoculum: Microorganisms produced from a pure culture; used to start a new culture in a larger vessel than that in which they were grown.
Invasive species: A species that has moved into an area and reproduced so aggressively that it threatens or has replaced some of the original species.
Iodine number: A measure of the ability of activated carbon to adsorb substances with low molecular weights. It is the milligrams of iodine that can be adsorbed on one gram of activated carbon.
Iodine value: A measure of the number of unsaturated carbon-carbon double bonds in a vegetable oil molecule. By titrating the oil with iodine, which reacts at the double bond sites, the number of such sites can be measured. Double bonds in vegetable oils make the molecules less flexible, and mean that they solidify at a lower temperature. In liquid biofuel applications this gives a lower cold filter plugging point (CFPP) or cloud point. While this makes it good for use in cooler temperatures, double bonds can allow polymerization, leading to the formation of lacquers and possibly blockage and damage to engine or fuel train components.
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