Joule: Metric unit of energy, equivalent to the work done by a force of one Newton applied over a distance of one meter (= 1 kg m2/s2). One joule (J) = 0.239 calories (1 calorie = 4.187 J).

JP-8 (or JP8 for "Jet Propellant 8"): A jet fuel, specified in 1990 by the U.S. government. It is kerosene-based. It is a replacement for the JP-4 fuel; the U.S. Air Force replaced JP-4 with JP-8 completely by the fall of 1996, to use a less flammable, less hazardous fuel for better safety and combat survivability. The U.S. Navy uses a similar formula, JP-5.

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